Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Worship of a self-made calf - Quran Chapter 2-92 & 93 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-122) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-92 & 93 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-122) - درس قرآن

Worship of a self-made calf

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

92. وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذْتُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمْ ظَٰلِمُونَ

93. وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ ٱلطُّورَ خُذُوا۟ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَٰكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَٱسْمَعُوا۟ ۖ قَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا۟ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِۦٓ إِيمَٰنُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ


92.  And Moses came unto you with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty), yet while he was away, ye chose the calf (for worship) and ye were wrongdoers.

93.  And when We made with you a covenant and caused the (Mount) Toor to tower above you, (saying): Hold fast that which We have given you, and hear (Our Word), they said: We hear and disobey. And (worship of) the calf was made to sink into their hearts because of their rejection (of the covenant). Say (unto them): Evil is that which your belief enjoineth on you, if ye are believers.
92.  Wa laqad jaaa-‘akum-Muu-saa  bil-Bayyinaati summat-takhaz-tumul-‘ijla mim- ba’-dihii wa ‘antum zaalimuun.

93.  Wa ‘iz ‘akhazNaa Miisaa-qakum wa rafa’-Naa fawqa-kumut-Tuur. Khuzuu maaa ‘aatayNaakum- bi-quwwa-tinw-wasma-‘uu. Qaaluu sami’-naa wa ‘asaynaa; wa ‘ush-ribuu fii quluubihimul-‘ijla bi-kufrihim. Qul bi’-samaa ya’-murukum- bihiii  ‘iimaanukum  ‘in-kuntum-mu’-miniin.

Commentary

 In the previous verse, Allah Almighty has proved that the claim of the Jews was wrong that they were following entirely the Divine Law of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) and now; they do not need any new Religion or Divine law. God Almighty commanded against it that they used to falsify their many Prophets and some of Them (peace be upon them) were even slain by them.

Now in this verse, God Almighty commands that He sent the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) and bestowed Him also a lot of miracles but knowing all this, even then, the Children of Israel began worshipping of the calf. They gave up Oneness of God and overtook infidelity and ascribed plurality with God Almighty.

Then Allah Almighty made covenant with them in the base of Mount Sinai on some Orders to be obeyed. At that time, due to fear of God Almighty, they promised but later on, they refused to admit it. So at last, Allah, the Most High says, “If your faith, of which you claim, teaches you to slay the Prophets (peace be upon Them), worship the calf instead of God Almighty and break the covenant, then your this faith teaches you wrong-doings. How can it be a true Belief?

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/32ynTuoEh38

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Refusal from invitation of Belief - Quran Chapter 2-91 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-121) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-91 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-121) - درس قرآن

Refusal from invitation of Belief

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

91. وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

91.  And when it is said unto them: Believe in that which Allah hath revealed, they say: We believe in that which was revealed unto us. And they disbelieve in that which cometh after it, though it is the truth confirming that which they possess. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Why then slew ye the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if ye are (indeed) believers?
91.  Wa ‘izaa qiila lahum ‘aa-minuu bimaaa ‘anza-LAllaahu   qaaluu nu’-minu bimaaa ‘un-zila ‘alaynaa wa yakfuruuna bimaa waraaa-‘ahuu wa huwal-Haqqu musaddiqal-limaa ma-‘ahum. Qul falima taqtuluuna ‘ambiyaaa-
‘Allaahi min- qablu ‘in- kuntum-mu’-miniin.

Commentary

As it has been explained previously that when the Last Prophet Muhammad (peace, glory and blessings on Him) invited the Children of Israel that they should embrace Islam, they replied that their hearts have already been filled with these Commands of God Almighty, which exist in their Heavenly Scripture Torah, so, they have no need of any new teachings and Revelations.

Allah Almighty has manifested in this verse that this claim of theirs’ is false also because they do not believe in even their Heavenly Books entirely and do not follow their Commands. It is its proof that they used to falsify their Prophets (peace be upon Them), moreover they have slain some of Them. If they had faith completely in that Scripture and its Commands, then they might not be so disobedient.

After providing this proof, God Almighty warns them that they have gone astray totally from the Straight Path and have left the true religion, so, it is better for them that they should adopt the Religion Islam and admit the Holy Qur’an. It is the Last Heavenly Book. This Book confirms their holy Books itself and presents them in duly corrected form. Without believing in the Last Scripture of Allah Almighty, their claim of believing in their own Scriptures is totally wrong.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/RiGQOAXN9-0

Monday, July 24, 2017

Consequence of Religious Persecution - Quran Chapter 2-90 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-120) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-90 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-120) - درس قرآن

Consequence of Religious Persecution

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

90. بِئْسَمَا ٱشْتَرَوْا۟ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ ۚ وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ


90.  Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His Bounty unto whom He will of His bondmen. They have incurred anger upon anger. And for disbelievers is a shameful doom.
90.  Bi’-sa-mash-taraw bihii ‘anfusahum ‘any-yakfuruu bi-maaa- ‘anzalAllaahu bagyan ‘any-yunazzi-lAllaahu min- faz-liHii ‘alaa many-yashaaa-‘u min ‘ibaadiH.  Fabaaa-‘uu  bigazabin ‘alaa gazab. Wa lil-Kaafiriina ‘azaabum-muhiin.

Commentary

Allah Almighty commands in this verse that the Children of Israel are entirely selfish and sensual people. They are stubborn and jealous also. They see everything even that the Commands of God Almighty from the business and national point of view, and think that their benefit is; whether in following these orders or disobeying them. If they suppose that they will reap their personal advantage by changing these orders or by violating them, they shall do that without hesitation.

Due to the result of bigotry and sensuality, jealousy was born into them very severely. Because they wanted to get each type of favor and kind for themselves only, as if, it was their right by birth, and without distinction of deeds, the favors and mercy of God Almighty would remain only for them.

When Prophet Muhammad (peace, grace and blessings be upon Him) was sent as the Last Messenger of Allah Almighty, the Jews felt a lot of restlessness. Fire of jealousy blazed into them that why the prophet-hood has been transferred into the Children of Ishmael instead of their dynasty. Whereas, they should know that God Almighty sends His Bounty for him, whom, He desires and bestows Prophet-hood and Messenger-hood to him. But the Jews refused to believe in the Last Messenger Muhammad (peace, glory, grace and blessings be upon Him) due to their stubbornness and did not return towards the Right Path. 

Due to chained infidelity and denial of the Jews, they have incurred anger upon anger of God Almighty. And for the disbelievers, is a shameful doom on the Day of Resurrection, because besides being disbelievers; they are obstinate as well as envious too.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif).
https://youtu.be/NapF-5g9KcI

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Intentionally Infidelity - Quran Chapter 2-89 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-119) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-89 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-119) - درس قرآن

Intentionally Infidelity

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

89. وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ كِتَٰبٌ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا۟ كَفَرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

89.  And when there cometh unto them a Scripture from Allah, confirming that which is in their possession—though before that they were asking for a signal triumph over those who disbelieve—and when there cometh unto them that which they know (to be true) they disbelieve therein. So the curse of Allah is on disbelievers.
89.  Wa lammaa jaaa-‘ahum Kitaabum-min ‘in-Dillaahi musaddiqul-limaa ma-‘ahum, wa kaanuu min- qablu yastafti-huuna ‘alal-laziina Kafaruu  Falammaa jaaa-‘ahum-maa ‘arafuu kafaruu bihii fala’-natUllaahi ‘alal-kaafiriin. 

Commentary

Kitaabum-min ‘in-Dillaahi – (a Scripture from Allah), here the word Kitaab signifies towards the Holy Qur’an, first address of which was also for the Jews in stead of the Infidels of Makkah. Majority of these people was living in Madinah.

Limaa ma-‘ahum – (that, which is in their possession), the aim from it is Torah, the Heavenly Book of the Jews. Holy Qur’an has mentioned its virtues at various places and proclaimed that this Scripture “Qur’an is also a True Book of Allah Almighty; it confirms other previous Heavenly Scriptures. Out of the previous Books the most famous Book is Torah, which was revealed on Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him).

Yastafti-huuna (they were asking for a signal triumph) this word has been derived from the word Fatah. According to Arabic language, it means “wish of superiority and victory”. In this verse, its both meanings can be taken. Before the manifestation of Last Messenger Muhammad (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him), whenever the Children of Israel were defeated by the natives of Madinah, at that time, they used to pray from Allah Almighty for victory and help, for the sake of Last Messenger (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him). This matter had been included in their trust that the Last Prophet (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him) would come to set them free. They would get freedom after believing in Him (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him).
  
When a Scripture, which was revealed by Allah Almighty unto the Jews, in which; verification of the principles of the Divine law of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) did exist, then those people disbelieved, and for which Last Messenger (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him) they had been waiting, and for the sake of whom they used to pray for victory against the Infidels, when He, Known Prophet (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him) came unto them; they began to disbelieve in Him (grace, glory, peace and blessings be upon Him). Now those disbelievers have been cursed by God Almighty due to their infidelity. And they became victim of God’s wrath.
    
It appears from this statement that the Jews belong to a bigoted and jealous nation, so they have been cursed and put away from the Mercy of God Almighty due to their prejudice and infidelity. 

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/5BxB8SYVINM

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Prejudice of the Children of Israel - Quran Chapter 2-88 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-118) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-88 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-118) - درس قرآن

Prejudice of the Children of Israel

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

88. وَقَالُوا۟ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌۢ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

88.  And they say: Our hearts are enfolded in covers. Nay, but Allah hath cursed them for their unbelief. Little is that which they believe.
88.  Wa qaaluu quluubunaa gulf.   Bal-la-‘ana-humUllaahu bi-kufrihim fa-qaliilam-maa yu’-minuun.

Commentary

Gulfun – (enfolded in covers) ‘aglaf is its singular. It means, “Covered thing”, the thing, which is enfolded in cover and hidden in the curtain. The Children of Israel used to claim that their hearts are enfolded in covers and filled with the teachings of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him). So they did not need to accept any new teachings.

La-‘anahumUllaahu – (Allah hath cursed them) La’-nat means distance from the Mercy, someone’s deprival from God Almighty’s Grace and Mercy. It is also called the curse as that person is ignored by all. 

Qaliilan – (Little), it signifies that they used to disclose a dim attention towards the belief; off and on and only a few people, out of them used to believe. Majority was inclined towards dishonesty, faithless and violence.

When God Almighty fixed the self fabricated faiths of the Jews that those were False and the Word of Allah Almighty proved them wrong clearly, then there was no trick or argument remained with the Children of Israel. They began to say that their hearts were enfolded in the covers and nothing could effect on their hearts. They would never obey or become loyal to the instructions of anyone else.

The Jews used to state their false proof with much pride but God Almighty proclaimed clearly that they were totally liars. There is no any enfolded cover. But Allah Almighty has cursed them for their chained unbelief and its covers have enfolded their hearts. They have been removed from His Mercy and Kindness. So they do not believe in their true religion. Out of them, only a few people have believed in the Last Messenger Muhammad (grace, peace and blessings on Him).

It has been known from this verse that if the human beings either deny the Revelations of God Almighty or change them or transpose the words between them, or disobey continuously, then Allah Almighty curses them. The individual like this cannot draw his attention towards the Religion and Belief.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/gVJN9cwqD98

Friday, July 21, 2017

Sensuality and murder of Prophets - Quran Chapter 2-87b (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-117) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-87b (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-117) - درس قرآن

Sensuality and murder of Prophets

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

87b. أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌۢ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰٓ أَنفُسُكُمُ ٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ


87b.  Is it ever so, that, when there cometh unto you a Messenger (from Allah) with that which ye yourself desire not, ye grow arrogant, and some ye disbelieve and some ye slay?
87b.  ‘Afa-kullamaa  jaaa-‘akum Rasuulum- bimaa  laa tahwaaa  ‘anfu-sukumus-takbar-tum.  Fa-fariiqan- kazzabtum wa fariiqan-taqtuluun.

Commentary

God Almighty has bestowed two powers upon the human beings:

·                     Power of Belief (faith, religion, certainty and confidence).

·                     Power of practice (procedure compliance, operation and action).

If these both powers are right and straight forward then the path of object becomes easy. In the previous verses, God Almighty has described about those wicked deeds and crimes of the Children of Israel which belong to their power of practice. That is to say, they used to slay one another themselves and exile the feeble people. Now, weaknesses of the power of their belief and trust have been disclosed in this verse.

God Almighty commands, “We bestowed a Book to Moses (peace be upon Him) for their guidance, but when the Children of Israel began to change the Commands of this Scripture and disobey them, then We sent many Prophets after Moses (peace be upon Them). But these people continued disobeying some of Them and even they slew some of Them (peace be upon Them) also. Then We sent Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him) with the Holy Scripture Gospel, and for proving His truth, We bestowed many Miracles upon Him, and appointed the Angel, Gabriel (peace be upon Him) to support Him, but the Jews did not refrain from their habits and prepared to slay Him (peace be upon Him)”.

Now Allah Almighty says, “your circumstances are also strange, whenever any Messenger (peace be upon Him) brought the command of God Almighty against your personal desires and sensual wishes, you turned away from it with proud, falsified some Prophets (peace be upon Them) and slew some of Them.

Allah Almighty bestowed many miracles upon Messenger Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him). For instance; He (peace be upon Him) was bestowed to heal the blinds as having sight, cure the lepers and make the patients healthy, God Almighty produced Him (peace be upon Him) without father and bestowed power to speak in the cradle etc. But even then, the Children of Israel did not believe in Him (peace be upon Him) and continued opposing and committing troublesome acts.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/NP1lhCjM910

Thursday, July 20, 2017

Birth of Jesus (peace be upon him) - Quran Chapter 2-87a (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-116) - درس قرآن


Quran Chapter 2-87a (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-116) - درس قرآن

Birth of Jesus (peace be upon him)

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

87a. وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ بِٱلرُّسُلِ ۖ وَءَاتَيْنَا عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدْنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلْقُدُسِ  
87a.  And verily We gave unto Moses the Scripture and We caused a train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave unto Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty), and We supported him with the Holy Spirit.
87a.  Wa laqad ‘aatayNaa Muu-sal-Kitaaba wa qaffayNaa mim-ba’-dihii birrusuli wa ‘aatay-Naa ‘Iisabna-  Maryamal-Bayyi-naati wa ‘ayyadNaahu bi-Ruu-hil-Qudus.

Commentary

QaffayNaa – (We caused a train of messengers to follow) after the Prophet Moses, a chain of Prophets (peace be upon Them) continued coming among the Children of Israel. From Them, famous Prophets are David, Zachariah, John, Yusha’ and Jesus (peace be upon Them).

‘Iisaa – (Jesus) the Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him) is the last Prophet out of the Prophets from the Children of Israel (peace be upon Them). No Prophet came in this world from the Children of Israel after the Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him). After Him, Prophet-hood was transferred toward the Children of Ishmael. In this dynasty the Last Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad (grace, peace and blessings on Him) was born and after Him (grace, peace and blessings on Him), neither any prophet has come and nor will come. It means that the prophet-hood has been finished after Him (grace, peace and blessings on Him). The Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him) conveyed this good news, particularly about gracing with the Last Messenger’s presence (grace, peace and blessings on Him). The calendar belonging to Jesus, starts from the year of His death (peace be upon Him). Nasirah is a town in the country of Syria, which was His Ancestors’ native land. Due to this relation, the people call Him Jesus Christ (Masiih Nasri).

Maryama – (Mary) (God’s Blessings on Her), Her father’s name was Imran. She belonged to a very noble family of the Children of Israel. She was very modest also. The Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him) was born from Her womb without father.

‘Iisabna- Maryama – (Jesus son of Mary) it signifies that the Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon Him) was too a mankind. God forbid! He (peace be upon Him) was not the son of God. However, He was a great Prophet and Messenger (peace be upon Him) of God Almighty. Because He (peace be upon Him) was born without father, so the relation is mentioned toward His Mother. 

Al-Bayyi-naat - clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty) there is no scope for tricks or arguments to deny these clear proofs. 

Ruu-hul-Qudus – (the Holy Spirit), aim from Ruu-hul-Qudus is; the Angel Gabriel (peace be upon Him). He used to bring the Messages of God Almighty towards the Prophets and Messengers (peace be upon Them). He helped the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon Them) in every difficult situation, so He has been mentioned particularly here in this verse.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif). https://youtu.be/Dly-Rbcykwk

Worship of a self-made calf - Quran Chapter 2-92 & 93 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-122) - درس قرآن

Quran  Chapter 2-92 & 93 (Pt-1, Stg-1) (L-122) - درس قرآن Worship of a self-made calf Surah ‘Al-Baqarah  (The Cow) – Chapt...